Archive for the ‘Aviation Jet Fuel’ Category
In keeping with President Barack Obama, the American Government is seeking alternative fuels not only to safeguard the environment, but additionally to “protect America’s national security.” The Navy is starting a major plan to decrease its dependency on oil. In a decade, it wants to power all its planes, vehicles and ships using a 50 percent green fuel blend.
The Navy actually celebrated Earth Day April 22, 2010 by showcasing a flight test of the “Green Hornet,” an F/A-18 Super Hornet jet fighter powered utilizing a biofuel blend. The Navy isn’t on it’s own, the Army too is creating combat vehicles made to run on renewable fuels like biodiesel and ethanol. The Defense Department has devoted $2.7 billion this year alone to improve energy efficiency, reported President Barack Obama. “Here in our country, as politicians in Washington discuss endlessly whether to act to reduce our oil dependency, our very own government has decided that we cannot afford not to,” he said. In short, over the next few years, global oil dynamics may alter the planet once and for all. And This Country is not exempt.
This Nation imports a whopping 56% of its day-to-day petroleum oil needs—over 10.9 million barrels on a daily basis. That’s greater than the entire regular production of Saudi Arabia. But even this number underestimates America’s vulnerability to oil shock. The reason is America imports nearly one fifth of the world’s accessible oil.
• The US Military uses between 60 and 75 million barrels of petroleum a year.
• The US Military spends greater than $60 billion a year for jet fuel.
Department of Defense, DARPA, Department of the Navy and also the Air Force are also looking for a replacement for JP-8 grade jet fuel NOW!
And this addiction to foreign oil supplies is set to become even worse. Algae Biofuel is rapidly advancing, Penn State University has tested a new dry algae based fuel and confirmed it does work in combustion engines which have been in the current service of the military, Dry Processed Algae Jet Fuel is the new algae biofuel.
Algae is more than simply pond scum. It’s actually a power source for energy independence. The green mess that forms in deteriorated swimming pools, lakes, ponds and streams has been investigated for attributes beyond the “ugh” factor.
Biofuels are by description any fuel that, by being burned, are easily converted to energy, and that’s produced from a biological origin. Considering a organic source can also be a renewable one, biofuels are reproducible. One type of fuel already being created from biological sources is bio-diesel.
The biofuels that people are very informed about today are the ones that are manufactured from food crops, such as corn. The biggest debate regarding this, among those going green, is too much food is currently being devoted to fuel, when it needs to be allocated for its original purpose, which is to feed humans or animals. While eating is one of the few things we must do to live, having fuel is also very important. Algae biomass also has potential to grow into a mainstream fuel feedstock.
Algae are not a food crops, they grow rapidly and algae remove massive amounts of carbon dioxide and nitrogen from the air.
Therefore , voice your individual support for your hometown, regional and national governments for ongoing investment in algae biofuels research and investment to protect America’s National Security, our country & military are dependent upon it.
Algae Aviation Fuel from CCA is Proud to Announce Initial Sale of Powdered Algae Jet Fuel to the United States Air Force Research Laboratory. An undisclosed amount of powdered algae fuel will be evaluated as a solid fuel propellant for rocket use.
Compact Contractors for America (CCA), a Southern Utah-based company has developed a dry process biofuel from algae, camelina seed, and other non-fossil fuel sources. Dry process biofuels are essentially powders that can be fluidized and combusted in jet turbine engines. Dry process fuels have been around for a long time, at least since the first pulverized coal power plants. Running engines on burnable powders as opposed to liquid fuel is nothing new. What CCA has done is identify the most effective feedstock’s, process methodology and fuel delivery processes to make dry process biofuels scalable to military operations. Commercial application requires further research and testing.
The use of solid fuels in compact combustion power systems
A sample of Turbine Bio Fuel was provided by Robert Fulton of CCA, LLC. The producer of this algae derived solid fuel intends to explore its use as a fuel in aircraft engines or aero-derivative gas turbine power systems. As an expert in alternative fuel combustion power systems and the fuel feed systems required to support pressurized combustion of bulk solids fuels, I evaluated the powder for feasibility of use in ARL/Penn State’s powder fuel feed system.
The vast majority of compact combustion power systems developed for mobile systems rely on liquid and gaseous fuels as the source of chemical energy. Under certain circumstances, however, solid fuels might offer particular advantages due to their unique thermodynamic properties or economic attributes. In order to exploit these advantages, at least two obstacles must be overcome. The first is to deliver the fuel in a steady manner to the combustor which is typically well above atmospheric pressure. While delivering gases and liquids to a pressurized combustor with pumps and compressors is routine, doing the same with solids can require specialized equipment and carefully controlled fuel properties. The second large challenge associated with the use of solid fuels in compact combustion power systems is the rapid ignition and complete combustion within the combustor. Gases and liquid naturally disperse in air streams in ways that increase reaction rates so that reasonably small combustor sizes can be maintained. Solids generally tend not to disperse particularly well and solid combustion can often involves relatively slow phase changes.
Solids materials can generally be delivered to pressurized compact combustors and dispersed for rapid, intense combustion if the solids can be fluidized homogeneously. Homogeneous fluidization, in this context, indicates that the mass of solids in flight through the fuel pipeline has a density that is only slightly less (5-10%) than the powder density at rest and that the cloud of particles flowing through the pipeline and into the combustor is generally of uniform density. Such fluidizable solids behave very much like liquid fuels and can be considered for use in systems designed for liquid fuels.
The characteristics of fluidizable powders have been studied for some time by a number of researchers. The Hausner Ratio is a simple but revealing parameter that is indicative of homogenous fluidization behavior. It is simply the ratio of the tapped or vibrated powder density to the poured density. For the sample provided, I measured a value of 1.31 indicating a slight degree of cohesion which is generally considered beneficial for stabilizing expanded/aerated masses of powders. Direct experience indicates that powders with Hausner Ratios of below 1.35 can exhibit homogeneous fluidization. A Hausner Ratio of 1.25 is generally considered ideal for homogeneous fluidization. In order to reduce powder cohesion and facilitate further handling experiments, the sample powder was mixed with a very fine, food-additive-grade silica powder. This step will almost certainly not be necessary to produce homogeneous fluidization if a slight larger particle size distribution can be produced. Scanning electron microspore images of the sample powder indicate a powder with a relatively high sphericity and a low incidence of irregular particles. These observations also indicate a good probability that the powder will be able to be handled in the pressurized fuel feed system.
SOURCE: Dr.Tom Cawley
Title: RES ASSOC
Administrative Area: RESEARCH-DEFENSE REL
Department: APPLIED RESEARCH LAB
The Pennsylvania State University
Applied Research Laboratory
State College, PA 16801
Recent tests showed warplanes can fly on bio-fuels
WASHINGTON, May 10 (Reuters) – The Pentagon is working hard to promote development of biomass fuels that could power future fighter jets and other warplanes, but defense officials say it could take years to get a full-fledged industry on its feet.
Top U.S. defense officials and executives from the petroleum, alternative fuels and renewable energy sectors are meeting outside Washington this week to address new technology developments and initiatives such as the Pentagon’s work on developing biofuels to power military aircraft.
The long-term goal is to decrease U.S. dependence on foreign crude oil, said Air Force Colonel Francis Rechner, director of operations of the Defense Energy Support Center, run by the Pentagon’s main logistics agency.
Rechner cited the March flight of an Air Force A-10 Thunderbolt II attack plane, powered by a mix of biomass and jet fuel, and the flight of the Navy’s “Green Hornet,” a Boeing Co (BA.N) F/A-18 fighter jet powered a blend of jet fuel and a biofuel made of camelina, a hardy U.S. plant.
Both aircraft performed well using the new bio-based fuels, he told Reuters in a telephone interview.
Mark Iden, Rechner’s deputy, said his agency signed an agreement in March with the Air Transport Association, the main industry group for U.S. commercial airlines, to help promote widespread commercialization of environmentally friendly aviation fuels and become less reliant on petroleum.
Together the airline industry and the U.S. military use more than 1.5 million barrels of jet fuel a day.
The challenge now was to promote construction of facilities that could produce large quantities of biofuels using algae, camelina and other plants, Iden said.
He said there was a lot of research and development under way, but it could take years to create a full-fledged industry. “We are literally developing it from scratch,” Iden said, adding he expected the Pentagon to issue an initial solicitation for bids from industry within a year or two.
Iden said the BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico had spurred interest in the Pentagon’s work on alternative fuels and underscored the importance of alternative fuels.
But the military would rely on petroleum for a long time, he said. “You’re never going to eliminate petroleum.”
Rechner said the Obama administration supported the Pentagon’s efforts, and President Barack Obama in December nominated Sharon Burke, vice president of the Center for a New American Security think tank, to become the Pentagon’s new director of operational energy plans and programs.
That post was aimed at coordinating various energy efficiency and alternative energy programs across the various military services, a good step in the right direction, but Burke’s nomination was being held up by lawmakers, he said. (Reporting by Andrea Shalal-Esa; Editing by Steve Orlofsky)
Air New Zealand and Boeing are secretly working to create the world’s first green aviation fuel, made of wild algae. The fuel is essentially derived from bacterial pond scum created through the photosynthesis of sunlight and carbon dioxide on nutrient-rich water sources such as sewage ponds. The company providing the biofuel is Aquaflow Bionomic Corporation. If the project pans out the small and relatively new New Zealand company could lead the world in environmentally sustainable aviation fuel.
Compact Contractors of America have developed a Dry Process Algae Bio Jet Fuel for ground power turbine or air frames. They are currently seeking governmental entry to either direct testing or further development to meet the AirForce and Naval flight demands.
Air New Zealand may be the first to test these new algae fuels on their engine while normal aviation fuel would drive the other engine. Fuel is held in cells on the aircraft that can be directed to a specific engine.
None of the parties involved will talk about the joint venture development because of confidentiality agreements but whispers about the project were circulating at the roll-out of the Boeing 787 Dreamliner in Seattle in the US last week. However CCA is open and ready to accept new testing platforms.
Local Marlborough media reported a visit by Boeing to Aquaflow earlier this year and Boeing has stated publicly since then that it believes algae is the airline fuel of the future.
Richard Branson’s Virgin Fuels announced in April it was working with Boeing to demonstrate biofuel in a 747-400. The focus is on testing algae-derived jet fuel, especially its freezing point.
CCA states their fuel actually works better the colder it is. The differences in algae fuel will help the aviation industry in dry or liquid forms.
Boeing’s Dave Daggett was reported this year as saying algae ponds with a total of 34,000 square kilometers could produce enough fuel to reduce the net CO2 footprint for all of aviation to zero.
Until now the relatively new Blenheim company’s focus has been on biodiesel for cars, trucks, buses and boats. CCA has aimed it sights squarely on military drone applications and ground power for in theater production and utilization.
English Environment Minister David Parker drew public attention to the company in December when he test drove a Land Rover around that was powered by Aquaflow’s blend of algae biofuel and diesel (5% algae fuel and 95% conventional fuel) just a year after it was developed. CCA has to date has live fired tested it’s fuel in non military jet engines but is planning a test with military grade turbine jet engines in the near future.